Arbre vs React

Arbre is a component based server side DOM rendering library written in Ruby.  Arbre was extracted from Active Admin from 2011-2012  but has not gained widespread use elsewhere.  As of September 2017 there were around 4M downloads to date from RubyGems and barely 450 stars on GitHub.

class Panel < Arbre::Component
  builder_method :panel

  def build(title, attributes = {})
    super(attributes)

    h3(title, class: "panel-title")
  end
end

React is a component based isomorphic DOM rendering library written in Javascript.  npm downloads have reached 40M in the past couple of years and the project has 75,000 stars on GitHub: it’s no contest really.  If you prefer Ruby over ES6 an Opal wrapper is available as hyper-react .

class App < Hyperloop::Component
  render(DIV) do 
    MainNavigation {} 
    PageContents {} 
    Footer {} 
  end
end

The APIs for both are relatively simple.

Arbre has builder_method to register components.  Each component has a build method which adds tags to an Arbre::Context that is eventually output using to_s.

React components have a render method that adds elements to a virtual DOM that is synchronized with the browser DOM as needed.

The most obvious difference is that Arbre does not integrate Javascript event handlers: it uses an unobtrusive approach that leaves registering event handlers to accompanying ES6/Coffeescript/Opal files.

Being exclusively server-side means that Arbre can and has been used with ActionView helpers and templates.  There are bugs but it mostly works.  Arbre is relatively simple and provides what Active Admin needs without further dependencies.

React components are careful about maintaining state and re-render when state is changed.  Arbre components get re-instantiated for each request and are more ad hoc.

Is anything to be learned from this comparison?  The prospects of widespread adoption of Arbre are slim to none.  An increasing number of developers are going to be looking to use a Rails admin framework with React, and that is where opportunity lies.

TIOBE Index for August 2017: A new set of languages is gaining ground…

TIOBE replaces their index content each month, so I quote:

“The top programming languages are in a long term decline: both Java and C have all time low scores in the TIOBE index. And almost all of the other top 10 languages are going down as well year to year. So what languages are taking advantage of this? It is all happening down in the charts around position 40. A new set of languages is gaining ground, notably Crystal (#32), Kotlin (#41), Clojure (#42), Hack (#43) and Julia (#46). Especially Crystal with its jump from position 60 to 32 in one month is doing very well. The Crystal programming language is a statically typed Ruby variant. Since it is compiled it is superfast and has a small memory footprint without losing the feeling of being easy to use. It seems worthwhile to give it a try.”

Year 7 with Rails

In my seventh year with Rails I started allocating ’20% time’ to maintenance of Active Admin and related open source gems.  As the universe of web technologies continues to expand and fragment there has been increasing acknowledgement at GitHub and elsewhere of the stresses on volunteer contributors and the consequent rise in the number of projects falling into disrepair.  Active Admin at least now has an official 1.0 release and timely support for Rails 5.1.
On the plus side competition and the exodus from Rails has brought back innovation, most notably Rails 5.1’s integration of NPM, Yarn and Webpack.  Beyond Rails in the wider Ruby community an object-functional style of programming is gaining popularity, championed by dry-rb and embraced by Hanami and Trailblazer.
This year has been one of considerable progress (and hype) around containers and microservices.  Microservices are not without tradeoffs but Docker containers have proven themselves useful in both development/CI and production.
At my employer our codebase has reached 50kloc, now 60% componetized into gems, but a new joint venture has doubled our infrastructure and provided incentive to switch to Docker (and Elastic Beanstalk).  Containerizing legacy applications is not always trivial, however, as adopting a 12-factor approach means simplifying and standardizing sometimes disparate logging and configuration solutions, as well as changing to process supervision in a stripped down POSIX environment instead of a full blown Linux host.  Our monitoring stack now includes Pingdom, Airbrake, Loggly, PagerDuty, Skylight, (CloudWatch) and Librato.  Moving CI to Docker has been challenging, with initially only CodeShip providing a SaaS solution with parallel tests each with multiple sets of containers.
Looking forward Rubyconf last November continued to raise hopes that performance and concurrency will be improved… eventually.  Meanwhile there are numerous projects working on integration with compiled languages: helix with Rust, swig with C/C++, Loren Segal’s gorb with Go, and rubex.  Crystal has gained attention as a Ruby-ish experiment on LLVM with its own MVC frameworks.
On the front end React may now be a ‘safe’ choice for front end development but possibly disruptive innovation continues with VueJS, CycleJS and Elm.  The next twelve months will see either our further adoption of React on Rails or a shift to a different approach.

RailsConf 2017, Phoenix, AZ

Tuesday. Day 1. Keynote by DHH on belief systems. Fascinating talk by Lance Ivy on JSON Web Tokens, Justin Weiss on sessions, Dave Tapley with an entertaining exploration of VueJS, ActionCable and image processing. Eileen Uchitelle with a much anticitpated presentation on adding a significant feature (SystemTestCases) to Rails. Alex Kitchens with a great primer on using Git to explore the history of the Rails codebase. Finally Sam Phippen, now with Digital Ocean, in much better health than last year, giving an upbeat tour of fixing some RSpec issues.

Wednesday. Day 2. Justin Searles keynote with a tongue-in-cheek programmer personality test inspired by Myers Biggs. Back to back presentations on Elm, Phoenix, React and Helix highlighting various Rails related technologies. Nate Berkopec with clear and practical guidance on configuring app servers on Heroku or elsewhere. Evening lightening talks, most notably Isaac Sloan building a Crystal Kemal blog in five minutes.

Thursday. Three talks on distributed teams, including Maria Gutierrez, Glenn Vanderburg, formerly of Living Social, and David Copeland of Stich Fix. Simon Enskilden on the decision at Shopify to embrace flash sales and scale from MySQL sharding to multi-datacenter ‘pods’. Tony Drake pitching his active_reporting gem, then Nate Berkopec and Eilieen Uchitelle again with Rafael Franca and Richard Schneeman on a performance panel before the final keynote from Aaron Patterson with his traditional trolling of DHH and, eventually, h2o with Rack 3.0.

Active Admin 1.0

Note: This post is by Varyonic, not the ActiveAdmin organization.

So after nearly seven years Active Admin 1.0 is out. It has been a long and sometimes uncertain journey of which I have witnessed only part. The original author has moved on, subsequent maintainers have burned out, changed jobs, started families… The bug list remains longer than we would like, the features list remains longer than we can handle, but Active Admin has been in production use for years at companies, NGOs and agencies, and there is commitment to keeping the project alive through quiet pragmatism rather than grand plans.

Not all of us have the time, money, or even need for the next shiny thing, and even if Active Admin sometimes cuts across ‘the Rails Way’ it can be a significantly productive tool. I encourage you to give it a try, to upgrade if you are already using it, to give us feedback if you find issues. General help is available on StackOverflow (tag #activeadmin); search the GitHub issues, both open and closed (~5,000 in total), before submitting anything new. If you are using Active Admin regularly consider looking through the code, issues and the commit log, maybe you will be inspired to contribute, even if just documentation or translations. If you are working for an agency with multiple customers you may be able to provide valuable insight and encourage adoption.

So thank you to all 500+ contributors so far and especially Timo for the past couple of years, here’s to the next 1M downloads.

Year 6 with Rails

In my sixth year with Rails the Ruby community has been experiencing a sea change: gem innovation has peaked and leading Rails developers have been moving on to JavaScript 6 Node, Dockerized microservices in Go, functional Clojure on the JVM or highly concurrent Elixir Phoenix on the fault tolerant Erlang VM. Despite these defections Ruby adoption has resurged (as, coincidentally, has Java) given new versions that have improved garbage collection and performance. Rails 5 has embraced concurrent-ruby and websockets, while HTTP/2 looks set to drive further significant change to all web application frameworks in the near future.

Meanwhile our in-house multi-currency e-commerce solution has grown to 45kloc, 2,100 tests and nearly 100 gem dependencies thanks to ever expanding integration with fraud detection services, fulfillment providers, payment gateways, email marketing solutions and an autodialer. Between daily business requirements we have been addressing technical debt by straggling to Ruby 2.2, Rails 4.2, RSpec 3.4 and ActiveAdmin 1.0.0.pre2. We have adopted CBRA and gemified the persistence core of the application. New gems adopted have included VCR, Wisper and React on Rails.

On the tools side this year has seen widespread adoption of Slack for distributed teams, but we have stuck with Atlasssian HipChat, configuring integration with Airbrake for production exceptions, Assembla for tickets, BitBucket for code reviews, CodeShip for CI and Coveralls for test coverage. Increasingly global sales have raised expectations of operations to provide 24×7 uptime, monitored by PagerDuty and requiring MySQL hot backups.

‘In Container’ Rails Development With Docker

Why Docker? Because it promises to make dev-ops easier. Dockerizing an existing production environment is not trivial, moving development to Docker is perhaps a useful stepping stone. It might also make developer on-boarding easier but I haven’t tried that yet.

Docker can be installed on OS X in various ways, most notably Docker Toolbox or homebrew. I was previously using docker-machine with Parallels but recently I discovered Dlite which simplifies using docker by creating a local OS X docker.sock that forwards requests to the docker VM. Dlite also sets up a an NFS server that exports /Users to the VM. Instead of VirtualBox or Parallels Dlite leverages a lightweight hypervisor called xhyve which requires Yosemite and hardware virtualization support (sysctl kern.hv_support). Note that as of writing Docker for Mac and Windows in public beta is using a similar approach.

With Dlite started I can get a usable bash session with:

docker run -v /Users:/home -it ruby:2.2 bash

I can then cd to the project directory and bundle.

To run browser based tests I was previously building a docker image with Xvfb, Chrome and Selenium Server installed. Recently, however, I found a different approach that uses standalone selenium-server as another docker service. On a Mac workstation installing selenium-server as a service is as simple as

brew install selenium-server-standalone chromedriver
selenium-server

Once tests are passing with a local selenium-server then adding selenium/standalone-chrome to docker-compose.yml and running browser based tests inside the container is quite achievable. The location of the selenium-server is exported to the app container as SELENIUM_PORT, eg. tcp://172.0.0.5:4444

TIOBE Index for May 2016: Ruby equals best position ever

TIOBE replaces their index content each month, so I quote:

“Ruby is currently at position 8 in the TIOBE index. This is equal to the highest position it reached in December 2008. This second peak is quite the opposite of the first one. In 2006 the Ruby evangelists were shouting the language to the top. There was no room for self reflection or discussion: Ruby and its programming environment Rails were about to conquer the world. And they succeeded in this to some extent. Ruby became the language for fancy start up companies with their tight time to market schedules. It was even awarded “Programming Language of 2006″ until its popularity peaked at the end of 2008. Then scalability appeared to be a problem. Performance dropped significantly if much data needed to be processed. In the beginning of 2010 one of those fancy start ups, Twitter, started to replace Ruby by Java for this same reason. The Ruby evangelists vanished to other cool new languages and Ruby seemed to be on its way out. But not really. After being out the limelight for quite some years, Ruby’s popularity started to grow again at the beginning of 2015. This time it seems to be a more sustainable growth based on actual usage of the language instead of shouting.”
tiobe-2016-05

RailsConf ’16, Kansas City, MO

Wednesday. Day 1. Keynote introduction by Jeremy Daer, nee Kemper, DHH thankfully racing. Heroku presenation on Kafka, Shopify presentations on shipit-engine, request_interceptor and BuildKite, Rafael França on Sprockets, and well attended presentation by Akira Matsuda with ideas for assorted Rails performance hacks. Closing keynote from Nickolas Means with a history of Lockheed’s original skunkworks.

Thursday. Day 2. Ruby Heroes including Avdi Grimm, Charles Nutter, Akira Matsuda and Richard Schneeman. Surprisingly few vendor booths, including Indeed Prime, Hired, Skylight, RubyMine, Stitch Fix and Codacy. Rails 5 presentations on ActionCable, Turbolinks and Sean Griffin on miscellaneous enhancements. Richard Schneeman on maintaining Sprockets and David Copeland of Stitch Fix on emergent software architecture. Lightening talks on Scrivito, RocketJob, Appfolio Farcy, Railscamp, Bundler Gemstash, multi_zip, Brakeman, RubyBookClub, Reinteractive Wallaby and Benjamin Fleischer on JSONAPI.

Friday. Day 3. Aaron Patterson, now at GitHub, workshops on Hashicorp tools and RedPotion and presentations on Percy and Sandi Metz on refactoring. Paul Lamere from Spotify with a wonderful presentation on music data analytics… in Python.

P.S. I never guessed the most interesting presentation on Rails would be by Justin Searls.

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